• A network protocol used by a network client to obtain its IP address automatically. This is usually done during the bootstrap process of computers or operating systems running on them. The BOOTP servers assign the IP address from a pool of addresses to each client. BOOTP enables 'diskless workstation' computers as well as other networked devices (printers...) to obtain an IP address prior to loading any advanced operating system.

    A network protocol used by a network client to obtain its IP address automatically. This is usually done during the bootstrap process of computers or operating systems running on them. The BOOTP servers assign the IP address from a pool of addresses to each client. BOOTP enables 'diskless workstation' computers as well as other networked devices (printers...) to obtain an IP address prior to loading any advanced operating system.

  • XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language.

    It is a way of organizing text and/or contents with tags. Tags look like this:

    <sometag>some content</sometag>

    Of course, although possible, this is not designed to be read by humans. It is designed to be processed by machines. Typically one program generates an XML document and another one computes it to some further extent.

    And XML document very much looks like an HTML document, except that the tags are different.

    There are actually many different dialects of XML, each for a different purpose. Each of these dialects has its own tags. And even more tags can be added. Hence the "eXtensible" in the name.

    There is an XML dialect for writing web pages. It is called XHTML. It is basically the same thing as HTML except for minor syntaxic differences. For example in HYML you would write <BR> whereas in XML you would write <br />.

    Other XML dialects include RSS and Atom.

    XML stands for eXtensible Markup Language.

    It is a way of organizing text and/or contents with tags. Tags look like this:

    <sometag>some content</sometag>

    Of course, although possible, this is not designed to be read by humans. It is designed to be processed by machines. Typically one program generates an XML document and another one computes it to some further extent.

    And XML document very much looks like an HTML document, except that the tags are different.

    There are actually many different dialects of XML, each for a different purpose. Each of these dialects has its own tags. And even more tags can be added. Hence the "eXtensible" in the name.

    There is an XML dialect for writing web pages. It is called XHTML. It is basically the same thing as HTML except for minor syntaxic differences. For example in HYML you would write <BR> whereas in XML you would write <br />.

    Other XML dialects include RSS and Atom.

  • The subnet mask is used in conjunction with the network address to determine which part of the address is the network address and which part is the host address.

    A subnet mask may look like 255.255.255.0 which means the first 3 bytes are part of the network and the last byte is the address of the host on the subnet.

    Another way to write the same network mask as above is /24 which means the 24 first bits (8 bits * 3 bytes) are part of the network.

    The subnet mask is used in conjunction with the network address to determine which part of the address is the network address and which part is the host address.

    A subnet mask may look like 255.255.255.0 which means the first 3 bytes are part of the network and the last byte is the address of the host on the subnet.

    Another way to write the same network mask as above is /24 which means the 24 first bits (8 bits * 3 bytes) are part of the network.

  • FTP is a protocol for transferring files over TCP/IP networks such as the Internet.

    To transfer files, you need to connect to an FTP server with some FTP client software.

    FTP can be used to transfer very large files, especially files that are too large to be sent via email. However, the need for a server to exchange files with someone else makes this less practical than email.

    FTP is also commonly used to upload web pages and web applications to web sites. Most web servers also feature an FTP server.

    Some commonly use FTP clients are:

    • Windows: FileZilla
    • Mac: CyberDuck, Transmit
    • Unix: ftp command

    FTP is a protocol for transferring files over TCP/IP networks such as the Internet.

    To transfer files, you need to connect to an FTP server with some FTP client software.

    FTP can be used to transfer very large files, especially files that are too large to be sent via email. However, the need for a server to exchange files with someone else makes this less practical than email.

    FTP is also commonly used to upload web pages and web applications to web sites. Most web servers also feature an FTP server.

    Some commonly use FTP clients are:

    • Windows: FileZilla
    • Mac: CyberDuck, Transmit
    • Unix: ftp command
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard to provide the same level of security as the one of a wired LAN.

    WEP provides security by encrypting data sent wirelessly so that it is protected as it is transmitted from one end point to another.

    WEP is not regarded as very secure in the industry. 

    Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is a security protocol specified in the IEEE 802.11 standard to provide the same level of security as the one of a wired LAN.

    WEP provides security by encrypting data sent wirelessly so that it is protected as it is transmitted from one end point to another.

    WEP is not regarded as very secure in the industry. 

  • The part of a laser printer that melts the toner onto the print media. It consists of a hot roller and a back-up roller. After toner is transferred onto the paper, the fuser unit applies heat and pressure to ensure that the toner stays on the paper permanently.

    This is why paper is warm when it comes out of a laser printer.

    The part of a laser printer that melts the toner onto the print media. It consists of a hot roller and a back-up roller. After toner is transferred onto the paper, the fuser unit applies heat and pressure to ensure that the toner stays on the paper permanently.

    This is why paper is warm when it comes out of a laser printer.

  • IEEE 1284 is a parallel port standard of conectivity interface developed by the Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).  The term "1284-B" is a connector end of a parallel cable which is attached to other components (i-e: a printer).

    IEEE 1284 is a parallel port standard of conectivity interface developed by the Institution of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).  The term "1284-B" is a connector end of a parallel cable which is attached to other components (i-e: a printer).

  • Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an networking protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.

    Is is often use to verify a login/username against a central directory to allow/reject login and then maybe obtain more detailed information on the user (firstname, lastname, etc.)

    Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is an networking protocol for querying and modifying directory services running over TCP/IP.

    Is is often use to verify a login/username against a central directory to allow/reject login and then maybe obtain more detailed information on the user (firstname, lastname, etc.)

  • DNS is a system that stores information associated with domain names in a distributed database on networks such as the Internet.

    For example, when you type in a domain name like, for example, mozilla.org, you computer will automatically query the Domain Name System to find the actual IP address of the server you are trying to reach, for instance: 63.245.209.11.

    You can see that query in more detail by opening a command window and typing in:
    nslookup mozilla.org

    DNS is a system that stores information associated with domain names in a distributed database on networks such as the Internet.

    For example, when you type in a domain name like, for example, mozilla.org, you computer will automatically query the Domain Name System to find the actual IP address of the server you are trying to reach, for instance: 63.245.209.11.

    You can see that query in more detail by opening a command window and typing in:
    nslookup mozilla.org

  • Duty cycle is the page quantity which does not affect printer performance for a month. Generally the printer has the lifespan limitation such as pages per year. The lifespan means the average capacity of print-outs, usually within the warranty period. For example, if the duty cycle is 48,000 pages per month assuming 20 working days, a printer limits to 2,400 pages a day.

    Duty cycle is the page quantity which does not affect printer performance for a month. Generally the printer has the lifespan limitation such as pages per year. The lifespan means the average capacity of print-outs, usually within the warranty period. For example, if the duty cycle is 48,000 pages per month assuming 20 working days, a printer limits to 2,400 pages a day.